Frog (Rana tigrina) Dissection Manual
For: Science Class 11
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File Size: 375 KB
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1. Place the frog on the dissecting pan. Do not pin it down.
2. Use these descriptions and the picture to identify each of the following external structures.
A. Head – the anterior end of the frog extending to and including the eardrums
mouth – the large opening at the anterior end of the head made up of a maxilla and mandible
maxilla – the upper jaw bone
mandible – the lower jaw bone
external nares (i.e. nostrils) – two small openings on the dorsal surface of the head near the tip
eyes – two eyes protrude from the head just posterior to the external nares
nictitating membrane – an extension of the lower eyelid that can come up to protect the eye
tympanum (i.e. eardrum) – round membranes just posterior and ventral to the eyes
B. Trunk – the posterior end of the frog extending from the head to the hindlimbs
cloacal opening – the hole at the posterior end of the frog (it’s the anus but has more functions)
C. Appendages – the limbs that extend from the trunk including the forelimbs and hindlimbs
forelimbs – short extensions from the anterior end of the trunk
arm – the uppermost section of the forelimb extending from the shoulder to the elbow
forearm – the middle section of the forelimb extending from the elbow to the wrist
hand – the lowermost section of the forelimb extending outward from the wrist
hindlimbs – long extensions from the posterior end of the trunk
thigh – the uppermost section of the hindlimb extending from the hips to the knee
shank – the middle section of the hindlimb extending from the knee to the ankle
foot – the lowermost section of the hindlimb extending outward from the ankle
digits – the fingers and toes; note: there are four finger digits but five toe digits
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