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Nutrition in Animals and Humans | Biology Class 12

Nutrition in Animals and Humans Class: 12
Zoology | Notes
Nutrition in Animals and Humans
Class: 12

All living beings are composed of cells and cells required energy for performing their functions. The overall process of obtaining food in order to provide energy to body part so that body part can perform their function is called Nutrition. The digested food is utilized to liberate energy which is required for metabolic activities growth and repairing tissue. The food components that provide required energy are called nutrients which include carbohydrate, protein, lipid, vitamin, minerals and water.

Types of Nutrition 
Depending on methods of obtaining food nutrition is of two types, Autotrophic and Heterotrophic. 

A. Autotrophic Nutrition 
The type of nutrition in which an organism prepares its food oneself by utilizing raw material available in the environment is called autotrophic nutrition. The organisms showing this mode of nutrition are called autotrops like green plants. 

B. Heterotrophic Nutrition 
The nutrition in which organism obtains from others and cannot prepare its own food oneself is called heterotrophic nutrition and the organisms showing this mode of nutrition are called Heterotrops. For food they directly or indirectly depend on autotrops. Depending on the way of obtaining food heterotrophic nutrition can be of following types: 
  1. Herbivores: The animals which directly depend on plant are called herbivores and this mode of nutrition is called herbivores nutrition. They are grazing or browsing animals like deer, grasshopper, elephant and alike other. 
  2. Carnivores: The animals which feed on other animals by killing them are called carnivores and it is also called as predators. This mode of nutrition is called predictive nutrition. 
  3. Omnivores: The animals which consume plants and animals and their products are called as omnivores like man, house sparrow etc. 
  4. Frugivores: The animals feeding on fruits are called Frugivores like squirrel, parrot, pigeon etc. 
  5. Sanguivores: The blood sucking animals are called Sanguivores and their mode of nutrition is called Sanguivores. 
  6. Cannibalism: The phenomenon of feeding on members of same species is called cannibalism and is found in fishes, snakes, cat etc. 
  7. Parasitic Nutrition: The parasitic nutrition is that in which an organism obtain its food from the body of another organisms without killing. The organisms showing this mode of nutrition is called parasites which may be either ecto or endo parasite. Ecto parasites are that which is located on the body of host while endo parasite resides inside the body of host. 
  8. Saprophytic Nutrition: It is a type of heterotrophic nutrition in which an organism obtains its food by decomposing dead materials and the organisms showing this mode of nutrition are called saprophytes such as fungi and bacteria. 
Nutrition in Man 
Human are omnivores and derive their food from plants and animals and their products. Being autotrophic all the lives on earth depend on green plants. Thus plants are direct source of food for humans. The food components which are not prepared by an animal but necessary for growth, repair and development are called as nutrients. The nutrients are of six types i.e. Carbohydrate, protein, lipid, vitamin minerals and water. Out of six former four are organic and later two are inorganic. The requirement of nutrients to the body varies with age, sex and physiological start. The nutrients required their dose and function are described as follow: [Please open the link to read]
Balanced Diet [ Next Topic - Read this ]

Disorders due to over Nutrition
If a person consumes more diet that provides adequate calories. It causes obesity and may also result hypercholesterolemia. These disorders are mainly due to excessive intake of the food that includes butter, ghee, egg, cheese. In the hypercholesterolemia the arteries become narrower and have high blood pressure. In obesity the person has bulky and over weight body which led to increased blood pressure and heart problems. 

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